Cucullia scrophulariae (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)


Cucullia scrophulariae: Adult (e.l. S-Germany, Memmingen, larva in July 2014) [S] Cucullia scrophulariae: Adult (e.l. S-Germany, Memmingen, larva in July 2014) [S] Cucullia scrophulariae: Adult (e.l. S-Germany, Memmingen, larva in July 2014) [S] Cucullia scrophulariae: Adult (e.l. S-Germany, Memmingen, larva in July 2014) [S] Cucullia scrophulariae: Adult (e.l. S-Germany, Memmingen, larva in July 2014) [S] Cucullia scrophulariae: Adult (e.l. S-Germany, Memmingen, larva in July 2014) [S] Cucullia scrophulariae: Adult (e.l. Memmingen) [S] Cucullia scrophulariae: Young larva (Sardinia, Montiferru, 1000m above sea level, May 2012) [M] Cucullia scrophulariae: Young larva (Sardinia, Montiferru, 1000m above sea level, May 2012) [S] Cucullia scrophulariae: Young larva (Sardinia, Montiferru-Gebiet, May 2012) [S] Cucullia scrophulariae: Half-grown larva (eastern Swabian Alb) [N] Cucullia scrophulariae: Half-grown larva (Sardinia 2012) [S] Cucullia scrophulariae: Half-grown larva (Sardinia 2012) [S] Cucullia scrophulariae: Larva (Memmingen) [N] Cucullia scrophulariae: Larva [N] Cucullia scrophulariae: Larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, late July 2011) [N] Cucullia scrophulariae: Larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, late July 2011) [N] Cucullia scrophulariae: Larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, late July 2011) [N] Cucullia scrophulariae: Larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, late July 2011) [N] Cucullia scrophulariae: Larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, late July 2011) [N] Cucullia scrophulariae: Larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, late July 2011) [N] Cucullia scrophulariae: Larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, late July 2011) [N] Cucullia scrophulariae: Larva (S-Germany, Memmingen, late June 2014) [M] Cucullia scrophulariae: Larva (S-Germany, Memmingen, late June 2014) [M] Cucullia scrophulariae: Larva (S-Germany, Memmingen, late June 2014) [M] Cucullia scrophulariae: Pupa (e.l. S-Germany, Memmingen, larva in July 2014) [S] Cucullia scrophulariae: Typical larval habitat on the eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany: herbal edge with Scrophularia nodosa along a quite humid forest road. July 2011 [N]

Host plants:
The caterpillars live mainly on Scrophularia species as Scrophularia nodosa. According to literature, they are very rarely also observed on Verbascum species.

Habitat:
Cucullia scrophulariae inhabits forest edges, clearings, woodland trails, wetlands, herbaceous communities and ditches with Scrophularia species. I found many larvae in humid herbaceous forest edges in the Swabian Alb.

Life cycle:
Cucullia scrophulariae has a single generation from mid-May to early or mid-July. The caterpillars are observed in June and July, more rarely still in early August. The pupa overwinters as with all Cucullia species in a dense cocoon on the ground.

Endangerment factors:
Cucullia scrophulariae is in decline (dark forest management, destruction of vegetation-rich ditches, etc.), but is not threatened existentially because of its adaptation to forest habitats.

Remarks:
The total distribution extends across large parts of Europe. Whether Cucullia scrophulariae also penetrates further into Asia, is not yet well established.



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