Cucullia lactucae (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)


Cucullia lactucae: Adult (e.l. Vorarlberg, Kanisfluh, 2009) [S] Cucullia lactucae: Adult (e.l. Vorarlberg, Kanisfluh, W-Austria, 2009) [S] Cucullia lactucae: Adult (e.l. Vorarlberg, Kanisfluh, 2009) [S] Cucullia lactucae: Adult (e.l. Vorarlberg, Kanisfluh, 2009) [S] Cucullia lactucae: Young larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, Gerstetten, late June 2011) [N] Cucullia lactucae: Half-grown larva (Olympus, Greece, July 2009) [N] Cucullia lactucae: Larva at Lactuca serriola (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Cucullia lactucae: Larva (Olympus, July 2009) [S] Cucullia lactucae: Larva (Bregenzer Wald, Kanisfluh, August 2009) [M] Cucullia lactucae: Larva (Bregenzer Wald 2009) [S] Cucullia lactucae: Larva (Memmingen, Southern Germany) [M] Cucullia lactucae: Larva (head), Bregenzer Wald, August 2009 [S] Cucullia lactucae: Pupa [S] Cucullia lactucae: Larval habitat on the eastern Swabian Alb (29/06/2012). Here I observed a quite large larva on a single Lactuca serriola. [N]

Host plants:
The larvae feed on Asteraceae, especially Prenanthis purpurea, more rarely also on Mycelis muralis, Lactuca and Sonchus species.

Habitat:
The larval habitat mostlky form forest edges, herb communities in the woodlands or clearcuts. Usually Cucullia lactucae occurs in mountainous, semi-shaded locations. But I observed a larva also on a hot woodland edge to a limestone quarry (eastern Swabian Alb).

Life cycle:
The pupa hibernates. The moths fly from May through August with a focus from mid-June to mid-July. Most caterpillars are found in July and August. They sit open on the plants.

Endangerment: regionally endangered or decreasing

Endangerment factors:
Cucullia lactucae is in decline due to dark forest management with afforestation of all remaining open areas and increasingly rapid overgrowth with nitrophyts (eutrophication of nitrogen and carbon dioxide).

Remarks:
The distribution extends from the Pyrenees through the temperate zone of Europe and Asia to Mongolia.



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