Catocala conjuncta (Esper, 1787)


Catocala conjuncta: Adult (e.l. Sardinia 2012) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Adult (e.l. Sardinia 2012) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Adult (e.l. Sardinia 2012) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Adult (e.l. Sardinia 2012) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Young larva (Sardinia, Montiferru, May 2012) [M] Catocala conjuncta: Young larva (Sardinia, Montiferru, May 2012) [M] Catocala conjuncta: Young larva (Sardinia, Montiferru, May 2012) [M] Catocala conjuncta: Young larva (Sardinia, Montiferru, May 2012) [M] Catocala conjuncta: Half-grown larva (Sardinia, Montiferru, May 2012) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Half-grown larva (e.l. Sardinia 2012) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Larva (e.l. Sardinia 2012) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Larva (e.l. Sardinia 2012) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Larva (e.l. Sardinia 2012) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Larva (e.l. Sardinia 2012) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Larva (e.l. Sardinia 2012) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Larva (e.l. Sardinia 2012) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Larva ventral [S] Catocala conjuncta: Larva, head (e.l. Sardinia 2012) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Larva caraniolateral [S] Catocala conjuncta: Larva lateral [S] Catocala conjuncta: Larva caudal [S] Catocala conjuncta: Pupa (cocoon removed) [S] Catocala conjuncta: Larval habitat in a well preserved Quercus ilex woodland on Mount Montiferru in 1000m above sea level (Sardinia, May 2012) [N] Catocala conjuncta: Larval habitat in a well preserved Quercus ilex woodland on Mount Montiferru in 1000m above sea level (Sardinia, May 2012) [N]

Host plants:
The caterpillar lives primarily on Quercus ilex (holm oak), perhaps also on related species such as Q. suber.

Habitat:
Catocala conjuncta inhabits holm oak forests. In Sardinia, I found the caterpillars mainly on strong lichen-covered oaks on the ground-level branches in a partially shaded to sunny forest edge at 1000m above sea level.

Life cycle:
The egg overwinters. The caterpillar lives from April to June or July. The caterpillars were smaller than the at the same time observed larvae of Catocala conversa and C. dilecta (and as small as those of C. nymphagoga) in Sardinia in mid-May 2012. The moths fly from July to September.

Remarks:
Catocala conjuncta is distributed around the Mediterranean: North Africa, Asia Minor, the Iberian Peninsula, Southern France, Italy, Greece, Albania, Macedonia and southwestern Bulgaria. They also settled some of the larger islands (about Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, Crete).



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