Hadena clara (Staudinger, 1901)


Hadena clara: Adult (e.l. Alpes-Maritimes, larva in July 2011) [S] Hadena clara: Adult (e.l. Alpes-Maritimes, larva in July 2011) [S] Hadena clara: Adult (e.l. Alpes-Maritimes, larva in July 2011) [S] Hadena clara: Adult (e.l. Alpes-Maritimes, larva in July 2011) [S] Hadena clara: Adult (e.l. Alpes-Maritimes, larva in July 2011) [S] Hadena clara: Adult (e.l. Alpes-Maritimes, larva in July 2011) [S] Hadena clara: Adult (e.l. Alpes-Maritimes, larva in July 2011) [S] Hadena clara: Adult (e.l. Alpes-Maritimes, larva in July 2011) [S] Hadena clara: Adult (e.l. Alpes-Maritimes 2011) [S] Hadena clara: Adult (e.l. Alpes-Maritimes 2011) [S] Hadena clara: Adult (e.l. Alpes-Maritimes 2011) [S] Hadena clara: Ovae in the calyx (artificially opened) of Silene cordifolia, Alpi marittime, July 2011. Most often there is only one egg per flower. But in this quite rare case there were two eggs of different females.Only one larva can develop per ovary. [M] Hadena clara: Egg at the ovary (Alpi marittime, mid-August 2010) [M] Hadena clara: Ovum after some days (detail), Alpi marittime, mid-July 2011 [S] Hadena clara: Egg shell after the larva hatched [S] Hadena clara: Drilling hole of the L1-larva in the ovary, Alpi marittime, July 2011 [S] Hadena clara: L1-larva in the ovary (opened) [S] Hadena clara: L1-larva (Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: L2-larva (Alpi marittime, August 2011) [S] Hadena clara: L3-larva (beginning of this instar) [S] Hadena clara: L3-larva (Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: L3-larva (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: L3-larva (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: L3-larva (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: L3-larva (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: L3-larva (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: L4-larva (penultimate instar, e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: L4-larva (penultimate instar, e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: L4-larva (penultimate instar, e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: L4-larva (penultimate instar) [S] Hadena clara: L4-larva (penultimate instar) [S] Hadena clara: Larva in last instar (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: Larva in last instar (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: Larva in last instar (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: Larva in last instar (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: Larva in last instar (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: Larva in last instar (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: Larva in last instar (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: Head (L5-larva, e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: Head (L5-larva, e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: L1 (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Young larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Young larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Young larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Young larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Half-grown larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Half-grown larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Half-grown larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Half-grown larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Larva in penultimate instar (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Larva in penultimate instar (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Larva in penultimate instar (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Larva in penultimate instar (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Larva (Greece, Velouchi, Tymfristos, 2000m asl, Silene sample on 01. July 2013) [S] Hadena clara: Pupa (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: Pupa (e.l. Col de Lombarde) [S] Hadena clara: Pupa dorsal [S] Hadena clara: Pupa - kremaster [S] Hadena clara: Pupa - proboscis [S] Hadena clara: Habitat in about 2300 to 2500m above sea level in the Alpi marittime (Col de Lombarde) [N] Hadena clara: Habitat in about 2300 to 2500m above sea level in the Alpi marittime (Col de Lombarde) [N] Hadena clara: Larval habitat in etwa 2200m above sea level (Alpi marittime) [N] Hadena clara: Larval habitat in about 2300m above sea level (Alpi marittime) [N] Hadena clara: Larval habitat: Silene cordifolia with eggs on a rock (Col de Lombarde) [N] Hadena clara: Larval habitat: Silene cordifolia with eggs on a rock (Col de Lombarde) [N] Hadena clara: Larval habitat: Silene cordifolia with eggs on a rock (Col de Lombarde) [N] Hadena clara: Larval habitat: Silene cordifolia with eggs on a rock (Col de Lombarde) [N] Hadena clara: Larval habitat: Silene cordifolia with eggs on a rock (Col de Lombarde) [N] Hadena clara: Larval habitat in Greece on Mount Tymfristos near Karpenisi on limestone (2000m asl, 01. July 2013) [N] Hadena clara: Habitat on Mount Tymfristos near Karpenisi (1. July 2013) [N]

Host plants:
The caterpillar lives on Silene species that grow directly on rocks (usually steep cliffs). In the Southwestern Alps, I found it on Silene cordifolia. Additionally, Silene vallesia is likely to be important in the Alps, with which distribution from the Maritime Alps to the Valais (Saas Fee) the spread of the moth correlates. In Greece, I recorded larva on Silene saxifraga.

Habitat:
Hadena clara inhabits steep rocky slopes which are mostly overgown with lichens. Important is the presence of a suitable Silene species (in the Alps Silene cordifolia and most likely Silene vallesia, in Greece Silene saxifraga).

Life cycle:
The pupa hibernates. The moths fly mainly in July and August, sometimes starting already in the end of June. I found the eggs and young caterpillars in mid-August 2010 (rather late mountain year) and in mid-July 2011 (early mountain year) in 2200 to 2500m above sea level in the south-western Alps (border ridge Italy-France) on steep rocks at Silene cordifolia.

The older caterpillars (especially the last two instars) are very colourful and so well camouflaged on lichen-rich rocks during the day when resting in crevices or at the base of the host plant.

Remarks:
Hadena clara occurs in the north African, European and Asian high mountains. In Europe it occurs for example in the Sierra Nevada (Southern Spain), the Southwestern Alps and the Balkan peninsula. Most populations are found above 1700m above sea level, rarely deeper. The upper limit is likely to be at 2800m above sea level in the Alps.

In the Alps, the distribution correlates strikingly with the probably most important host plant Silene vallesia, which is limited to the Southwestern Alps as the moth and reaches in the northeast the Valais. Silene cordifolia is endemic to the Southwestern Alps (Maritime Alps) and is absent further north. But this species is likely the cause for the commonness of Hadena clara in the Maritime Alps. Both Silene are found on acidic substrate only. Thus Hadena clara is likely to be missing in pure limestone areas at least in the Alps, but occurs there in the Balkans (Greece).



Hadena adriana | Hadena albimacula | Hadena bicruris | Hadena caesia | Hadena capsincola | Hadena compta | Hadena confusa | Hadena consparcatoides | Hadena drenowskii | Hadena filograna | Hadena gueneei | Hadena irregularis | Hadena laudeti | Hadena luteocincta | Hadena magnolii | Hadena nevadae | Hadena perplexa | Hadena ruetimeyeri | Hadena sancta | Hadena silenes | Hadena silenides | Hadena syriaca | Hadena tephroleuca | Hadena vulcanica | Hadena wehrlii 
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