Noctua pronuba Linnaeus, 1758


Noctua pronuba: Adult [S] Noctua pronuba: Adult in resting posture [S] Noctua pronuba: Adult (e.l. La Palma, larva in December 2012) [S] Noctua pronuba: Adult (e.l. La Palma, larva in December 2012) [S] Noctua pronuba: Adult (e.l. La Palma, larva in December 2012) [S] Noctua pronuba: Adult (Madeira, eastern coast, March 2013) [N] Noctua pronuba: Adult (Madeira, eastern coast, March 2013). While I could observe many larvae at higher elevations, there already flew adults at sea level. [N] Noctua pronuba: Adult (Azores, San Miguel, Monte Escuro, larva in December 2013) [S] Noctua pronuba: Adult (Azores, San Miguel, Monte Escuro, larva in December 2013) [S] Noctua pronuba: Adult (Azores, San Miguel, Monte Escuro, larva in December 2013) [S] Noctua pronuba: Eggs (Upper Rhine Valley south of Karlsruhe, September 2013) [M] Noctua pronuba: Eggs (Upper Rhine Valley south of Karlsruhe, September 2013) [M] Noctua pronuba: Eggs (Upper Rhine Valley south of Karlsruhe, September 2013) [M] Noctua pronuba: Ovae [N] Noctua pronuba: Ovae [N] Noctua pronuba: Young larva (eastern Swabian Alb, September 2010) [M] Noctua pronuba: Young larva (eastern Swabian Alb, October 2010) [S] Noctua pronuba: Young larva on Lathyrus (La Palma, December 2012) [M] Noctua pronuba: Half-grown larva (La Palma, December 2012) [M] Noctua pronuba: Half-grown larva (eastern Swabian Alb, October 2010) [M] Noctua pronuba: Half-grown larva (La Palma, December 2012). The earlier instars can be dark, too. Noctua pronuba: Half-grown larva (Memmingen, October 2012) Noctua pronuba: Half-grown larva (eastern Swabian Alb, October 2010) Noctua pronuba: Half-grown larva (Memmingen, early November 2011) [M] Noctua pronuba: Half-grown larva (Swabian Alb) [S] Noctua pronuba: Half-grown larva [M] Noctua pronuba: Half-grown larva [S] Noctua pronuba: Half-grown larva (La Palma, December 2012) [M] Noctua pronuba: Half-grown larva (La Palma, December 2012) [M] Noctua pronuba: Half-grown larva (La Palma, December 2012) [M] Noctua pronuba: Larva (Schwäbisch Hall, Germany, October 2011). Sometimes the larva is already quite grown in autumn. Noctua pronuba: Larva [S] Noctua pronuba: Larva (Madeira, March 2013) [M] Noctua pronuba: Larva (Memmingen) [M] Noctua pronuba: Larva (e.l. Memmingen 2012) [S] Noctua pronuba: Larva (e.l. eastern Swabian Alb 2012) [S] Noctua pronuba: Larva (e.l. La Palma 2012) [S] Noctua pronuba: Larva (eastern Swabian Alb, February 2010). Sometimes also the mature larvae are greenish. [S] Noctua pronuba: Larva (Madeira, March 2013) [M] Noctua pronuba: Larva (Madeira, March 2013) [M] Noctua pronuba: Larva (Madeira, March 2013) [S] Noctua pronuba: Larva (Madeira, Paul da Serra, 1500m asl, March 2013) [M] Noctua pronuba: Larva (Madeira, Paul da Serra, 1500m asl, March 2013) [M] Noctua pronuba: Larva (e.l. eastern Swabian Alb) [S] Noctua pronuba: Pupa (e.l. La Palma 2012) [S] Noctua pronuba: Pupa (e.l. eastern Swabian Alb 2010) [S] Noctua pronuba: Pupa [S] Noctua pronuba: Pupa (e.l. Saint Miguel, Monte Escuro, December 2013) [S] Noctua pronuba: Larval habitat in La Palma (December 2012, 900m asl). In the grassy verge right of the forest road I observed larvae of Noctua pronuba, Noctua noacki, Leucania fortunata and Xestia mejiasi. [N] Noctua pronuba: Larval habitat in La Palma in December 2012 [N] Noctua pronuba: Larval habitat on the eastern Swabian Alb in late October 2010. I observed many young larvae in the fallow meadow in the foreground. [N] Noctua pronuba: Larval habitat in a nature garden (Memmingen) [N] Noctua pronuba: Larval habitat in an open woodland (eastern Swabian Alb, November 2010, together with Noctua fimbriata). [N]

Host plants:
The larvae are polyphagous. The young caterpillars feed often on grasses, the later instars also more on herbs. But I also found youg caterpillars for example on Lathyrus.

Habitat:
Noctua pronuba colonizes habitats of all kinds from gardens over grasslands to forests. The moth is an ubiquist.

Life cycle:
The caterpillar overwinters half to almost fully-grown and can be commonly found especially in October/November and again in March/April. But they are active also during winter in favourable weather conditions. Adults can be observed throughout the summer. The eggs are attached in large flat batches on old blades and fruits of grass or leaves. In La Gomera and La Palma (Canary Islands), I watched each around Christmas hundreds of young to half-grown caterpillars. They are fitted in the phase of winter rain and growing season of annual plants (about Calendula) and pupate mostly from January to March.

Remarks:
Noctua pronuba is found throughout Europe and is one of the most common species of Lepidoptera. It also flies in North Africa, the Atlantic Islands, in Asia to northern India and Siberia. It was introduced in North America .



Noctua atlantica | Noctua carvalhoi | Noctua comes | Noctua fimbriata | Noctua interjecta | Noctua interposita | Noctua janthe | Noctua janthina | Noctua noacki | Noctua orbona | Noctua teixeirai 
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