Noctua carvalhoi (Pinker, 1983)


Noctua carvalhoi: Adult (e.l. Flores, larva in March 2013) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Adult (e.l. Flores, larva in March 2013) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Adult with arificially opened wings (e.l. Flores, larva in March 2013) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Half-grown larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [M] Noctua carvalhoi: Half-grown larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [M] Noctua carvalhoi: Half-grown larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Half-grown larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Half-grown larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [M] Noctua carvalhoi: Half-grown larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [M] Noctua carvalhoi: Larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [M] Noctua carvalhoi: Larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [N] Noctua carvalhoi: Larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [M] Noctua carvalhoi: Larva (Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Pupa (e.l. Azores, Flores Island, late March 2014) [S] Noctua carvalhoi: Larval habitat in Flores Island in late March 2014. I recorded a mature larva under a stone next to the young Scrophularia plant (with feeding scars) left of the center. [N] Noctua carvalhoi: Larval habitat in Flores Island in late March 2014. [N] Noctua carvalhoi: Larval habitat in Flores Island in late March 2014. Noctua carvalhoi: Habitat in Flores Island in late March 2014 [N] Noctua carvalhoi: Habitat in Flores Island in March 2014 (Caldeira Rasa). [N] Noctua carvalhoi: Larval habitat in Flores Island in March 2014. I observed a mature larva on a fern leaf and a half-grown larva on Rubus at night. [N]

Host plants:
The larvae are polyphagous on herbs and small shrubs like Rubus. I recorded it on Scrophularia and Rubus (Flores Island).

Habitat:
Noctua carvalhoi inhabits especially the Atlantic heaths with ferns, Calluna and mosses. It also occurs in woodlands and their margins and in other places.

Life cycle:
The larva is developing from autumn to spring and is mature between early March and early May. When consuming larger leaves, the larvae often start feeding in the midst of the leaf surface an are betrayed by the often roundish feeding trace. They hide in moss, under stones or in tussocks during daytime and feed at night. The moths occur in summer and seem to aestivate.

Endangerment factors:
Noctua carvalhoi suffers from cattle farming because it is very probable taht the larvae cannot develop at least in more intensely grazed areas. Its habitat has already shrunk severly in some islands.

Remarks:
Noctua carvalhoi is endemic to the Azores, but seems to miss in the eastern group (e.g. San Miguel).



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