Mniotype usurpatrix (Rebel, 1914)


Mniotype usurpatrix: Adult (e.l. La Palma, larva in December 2010, hatched in February 2012) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Adult (e.l. La Palma, larva in December 2010, Adult hatched in January 2012) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Adult (e.l. Tenerife, larva in March 2012, adult hatched in December 2012) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Adult (La Gomera (December 2011) [M] Mniotype usurpatrix: Adult (e.l. La Gomera 2011) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Adult (e.l. Fuerteventura 2011) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Adult (e.l. Fuerteventura 2010) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Adult (e.l. Fuerteventura 2010) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Adult [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Adult (La Gomera) [M] Mniotype usurpatrix: Adult (e.l. La Gomera) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Half-grown larva (Tenerife, Anaga, 200m above sea level, March 2012) [M] Mniotype usurpatrix: Larva in penultimate instar (La Gomera) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Half-grown larva (Tenerife, Anaga, 200m above sea level, March 2012) [M] Mniotype usurpatrix: Half-grown larva (Tenerife, Anaga, 200m above sea level, March 2012) [M] Mniotype usurpatrix: Larva after the last moult (e.l. La Gomera) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Larva (e.l. La Gomera) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Rarely the larva is still green in last instar (La Palma, 100m above sea level, on Echium in December 2010) [M] Mniotype usurpatrix: Larva (e.l. Tenerife 2012) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Larva (e.l. Tenerife 2012) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Larva (e.l. Tenerife 2012) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Larva (e.l. Tenerife 2012) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Larva (Fuerteventura, February 2011) [M] Mniotype usurpatrix: Larva cranial [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Pupa [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Pupa prior to hatching (e.l. La Palma 2011) [S] Mniotype usurpatrix: Habitat in La Gomera [N] Mniotype usurpatrix: Habitat in the lower mountains in Fuerteventura (February 2011) [N]

Host plants:
The caterpillars are polyphagous, but often feed on Rumex lunaria according to literature. I found them in La Gomera around Christmas 2008 at Calendula and Lotus, concealed on the ground at daytime. In La Palma, I observed repeatedly larvae on Calendula, Bidens, Echium, Bituminaria and Foeniculum. In Fuerteventura I observed a caterpillar on Nicotiana glauca and in Tenerife on Foeniculum.

Habitat:
Mniotype usurpatrix colonizes many different habitats in the open landscape and at sparse woodland edges, particularly so-called barrancos (ravines) and rocky, but vegetation-rich slopes. Mniotype usurpatrix is typical for the warm and dry low and medium elevations which is contrary to Mniotype fratellum.

Life cycle:
The adults occur in several generations throughout the year. But many pupae will aestivate in the dry summer, so that larvae are observed most often in winter and spring.

Endangerment factors:
Though especially the lower elevations of the Canaries have suffered from housing development and tourism, Mniotype usurpatrix is still quite common because it can reproduce in cultural landscape and has no specific or rare habitat requirements.

Remarks:
Mniotype usurpatrix is endemic to the Canary Islands (all islands, in Fuerteventura and Lanzarote more local in the mountains).



Mniotype adusta | Mniotype albostigmata | Mniotype fratellum | Mniotype schumacheri 
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