Apamea aquila Donzel, 1837


Apamea aquila: Adult [S] Apamea aquila: Adult [S] Apamea aquila: Adult [S] Apamea aquila: Adult [S] Apamea aquila: Young larva in autumn at Molinia fruit stand (S-Germany, October 2008) [M] Apamea aquila: Larva prior to hibernation [M] Apamea aquila: Larva prior to hibernation [S] Apamea aquila: Raupe prior to hibernation [S] Apamea aquila: Larva after the hibernation [S] Apamea aquila: Larva after the hibernation [S] Apamea aquila: Larva after the last moult  [S] Apamea aquila: Larva [S] Apamea aquila: Larva (e.l. S-Germany 2008) [S] Apamea aquila: Pupa [S] Apamea aquila: Habitat in the autumn, when the larvae change from the Molinia fruit stands to the ground (S-Germany, October 2008) [N] Apamea aquila: Habitat in autumn [N]

Host plants:
The caterpillars feed probably always on moor grass (Molinia) before hibernation, but should then also accept other species of grass, because Molinia thrives out very late in spring and no preference is evident in the breeding.

Habitat:
Apamea aquila colonizes grove-rich Molinia stocks, which are air and ground moist, but do not have too wet substrates. Apamea aquila can be found forest-near, shrubby and periodically wet fens and edges in Calluna bogs. Another focus is on montainous, rather moist mixed beech forests where the caterpillars live in small clearings, forest aisles and trail verges with Molinia.

Life cycle:
The young caterpillars live on the panicles of Molinia, where they rest in a slight webbing. During October or early November, they switch over to a ground-level living and overwinter. From March/April they become active again and feed until mid- or late May. The moths fly from late June to mid-August.

Endangerment: strongly endangered

Endangerment factors:
Apamea aquila is quite threatened. Their forest sites get lost due to eutrophication and darkening of forests (advancement of blackberry and nettle, intense dark forest management) and for the few remaining moors it is not better ordered (eutrophication, some improper maintenance, improper because too rapid and large-scale rewetting, insulation, reforestation due to disturbed water balance).

Remarks:
The distribution ranges from Spain across Central Europe to Western Asia. Another sub-area is located in east Asia (China, Korea, Siberia, Japan). In Central Europe Apamea aquila flies locally in the Alps, in the northern foreland of the Alps, from Belgium to Denmark and in many wet soils dominated uplands (Harz, Black Forest, Schönbuch, Pfälzer Wald etc.).



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German version / deutsche Version