Phlogophora kruegeri Saldaitis & Ivinskis, 2006


Phlogophora kruegeri: Male (e.l. Azores, Flores Island, larva in March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Male (e.l. Azores, Flores Island, larva in March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Adult (e.l. Flores, Azores, larva in March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Adult (e.l. Flores, Azores, larva in March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Adult (e.l. Flores, Azores, larva in March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Adult (e.l. Flores, Azores, larva in March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Adult (e.l. Flores, Azores, larva in March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Female (e.l. Azores, Flores Island, larva in March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Female (e.l. Azores, Flores Island, larva in March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Female (e.l. Azores, Flores Island, larva in March 2014) Phlogophora kruegeri: Female (e.l. Azores, Flores Island, larva in March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Freshly laid egg (breeding, ex Flores Island, 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Eggs (breeding, ex Flores Island, 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Young larva (e.o. breeding Flores, Azores, 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Young larva (Azores, Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Half-grown larva (e.o. breeding Flores, Azores, 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Half-grown larva (e.o. breeding Flores, Azores, 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Half-grown larva (e.o. breeding Flores, Azores, 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Half-grown larva (Azores, Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva in penultimate instar (e.o. breeding Flores, 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva in penultimate instar (e.o. breeding Flores, 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, Azores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva (Flores, March 2014) [M] Phlogophora kruegeri: Most last-instar-larvae are brownish in the field. This green larva was obtained in an es ovo breeding (ex Flores 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Most last-instar-larvae are brownish in the field. This green larva was obtained in an es ovo breeding (ex Flores 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Most last-instar-larvae are brownish in the field. This green larva was obtained in an es ovo breeding (ex Flores 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Pupa (e.l. Flores 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Pupa, kremaster ventral view (e.l. Flores, larva in March 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Pupa some days prior to eclosion (e.l. Flores 2014) [S] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva feeding at night (Flores, March 2014) [N] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larva feeding at night (Flores, March 2014) [N] Phlogophora kruegeri: Feeding scars (Flores, March 2014) [N] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larval habitat in the understory of an allochthonous coniferous forest (Flores, March 2014) [N] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larval habitat in the understory of an allochthonous coniferous forest (Flores, March 2014) [N] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larval habitat (Flores, March 2014) [N] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larval habitat (Flores, March 2014) [N] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larval habitat (Flores, March 2014) [N] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larval habitat (Flores, March 2014) [N] Phlogophora kruegeri: Larval habitat (Flores, March 2014) [N]

Host plants:
According to own field studies the larvae primarily feed on ferns. In January 2016, I also recorded two larvae on Rubus.

Habitat:
Phlogophora kruegeri inhabits fern-rich, wind-protected and humid habitats of all kinds in altitudes above app. 300m asl. Allochthonous coniferous forests, laurel forests and wind-protected sites in open country can all be settled.

Life cycle:
Phlogophora kruegeri is continous-brooded with adults year-round. Single larvae may be able to enter a dormancy prior to pupation in the cocoon. Oviposition occurs on the lower side of fern leaves, preferably younger ones, where the green younger larvae live. The mostly brown older larvae hide in the moss and litter during daytime and feed only at night. Then they often feed on the upper side of fern leaves.

Endangerment factors:
Phlogophora kruegeri is only moderately endangered at the moment because it has no high demands on habitat. Most important threat is transformation of habitat into cattle fields. On those usually quite intensely used cow meadows no endemic Azorean Lepidoptera species can reproduce successfully.

Remarks:
Phlogophora kruegeri is endemic to Flores Island (Azores). A small population may possibly be found on Corvo Island.

Phlogophora kruegeri is very closely related to P. interrupta which is widespread in central and eastern parts of the Azores. Phlogophora kruegeri seems to substitute P. interrupta in the western group (Flores). The two taxa supposedly evolved from a common ancestor. Differences are quite slight in all stages.

Literature:
Wagner (2015 b): A contribution to the knowledge of the larval ecology of the Azorean Phlogophora (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with taxonomic notes on the complex of P. interrupta (P. interrupta jarmilae Saldaitis & Ivinskis, 2006, stat. rev.).- Nachr. entomol. Ver. Apollo, N.F. 36 (2/3): 8092.



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