Panermia tenebrata (Scopoli, 1763)


Panermia tenebrata: Female (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, May 2010) [N] Panermia tenebrata: Male (Memmingen, April 2009) [N] Panermia tenebrata: Male (Memmingen, April 2009) [N] Panermia tenebrata: Adult in resting posture [S] Panermia tenebrata: Adult (Schwäbisch Hall, May 2010) [N] Panermia tenebrata: Adult (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, May 2010) [N] Panermia tenebrata: Oviposition (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, May 2010) [N] Panermia tenebrata: Ovum in flower of Cerastium fontanum (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, May 2010, Calyx leaf reflexed). [M] Panermia tenebrata: Young larva [M] Panermia tenebrata: Half-grown larva [M] Panermia tenebrata: Half-grown larva [M] Panermia tenebrata: Larva shortly after the last moult (district of Böblingen in 2009, S-Germany) [M] Panermia tenebrata: Larva short after the last moult  [M] Panermia tenebrata: Larva [S] Panermia tenebrata: Larva [S] Panermia tenebrata: Habitat in the SW-Bavarian Unterallgäu near Memmingen: extensively managed foot of a slope with Cerastium fontanum [N] Panermia tenebrata: Habitat on the eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany: clearing with much Cerastium holosteoides [N]

Host plants:
The species oviposits on flowers of Cerastium species. Particularly important are Cerastium fontanum, Cerastium arvense and Cerasium holosteoides. Rarely also other, similar Caryophyllaceae are used, e.g. Stellaria.

Habitat:
Panermia tenebrata inhabits extensive grassland of all types as well as edges and open spots in woods (clearings with Cerastium holosteoides). I observed particularly high abundances in dry, loose orchards meadows (with Salvia pratensis and Arrhenaterum elatius).

Life cycle:
The pupa hibernates. The moths fly in spring (April to early June) in a single generation. In the warmest regions there may follow a numerically insignificant partial second generation in July/August. The caterpillar lives in May and June at the flowers and fruits, as well as on the leaves of the host plants.

Endangerment: regionally endangered or decreasing

Endangerment factors:
Since extensively managed meadows have become very rare, even the quite adaptable species is under a certain threat.

Remarks:
Panermia tenebrata occurs from Northern Spain across much of Europe to the Urals and locally in Western Asia.


German version / deutsche Version