Thysanoplusia orichalcea (Fabricius, 1775)


Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Adult (La Palma, e.l. December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Adult (La Palma, e.l. December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Adult (La Palma, e.l. December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Adult (La Palma, e.l. December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Adult (La Palma, e.l. December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Adult (La Palma, e.l. December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Adult (La Palma, e.l. December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Adult (La Palma, e.l. December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Adult (e.,l. La Gomera 2013) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Adult (e.l. La Gomera 2013) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Young larva (La Gomera, February 2013) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Young larva (La Gomera, February 2013) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Young larva (La Gomera, February 2013) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Young larva (La Gomera, February 2013) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Young larva (La Gomera, February 2013) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Half-grown larva (La Gomera 2013) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Young larva (La Gomera, February 2013) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Young larva (La Gomera, February 2013) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Half-grown larva (Madeira, Santana, March 2013) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Half-grown larva (La Gomera 2013) [N] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (Madeira, March 2013) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Half-grown larva (Madeira, March 2013) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (e.l. La Gomera 2013) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (e.l. La Gomera 2013) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (e.l. La Gomera 2013) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (e.l. La Gomera 2013) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (e.l. Madeira, March 2013) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (e.l. La Gomera 2013) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Half-grown larva (La Palma, December 2010) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Half-grown larva (La Palma, December 2010) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Half-grown larva (La Palma, December 2010) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (e.l. La Gomera 2013) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (La Gomera, February 2013) [N] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (La Gomera, February 2013) [N] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (La Gomera 2013) [N] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (La Gomera, February 2013) [N] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (La Gomera, February 2013) [N] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (La Palma, December 2010) [M] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (La Palma, December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (La Palma, December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (La Palma, December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (La Palma, December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (e.l. La Gomera 2013) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (e.l. La Gomera 2013) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (Tenerife, March 2012) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (Tenerife, March 2012) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larva (Tenerife, March 2012) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Pupa (e.l. La Palma, December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Pupa (e.l. La Palma, December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Pupa (e.l. La Palma, December 2010) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Pupa (e.l. La Gomera 2013) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Pupa (e.l. La Gomera 2013) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Pupa (e.l. Tenerife 2012) [S] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Habitat in La Palma in December 2010: ruderalized spot with Echium, Foeniculum and other plants in a village. Syntopical were larvae of Chrysodeixis chalcites, Noctua pronuba and Condica capensis. [N] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larval habitat in La Gomera in February 2013. I observed many larvae in the dell on Bidens and other plants.  [N] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Larval habitat in La Gomera (February 2013). On the Bidens pilosa plants I also observed larvae of Condica capensis. [N] Thysanoplusia orichalcea: Habitat in Madeira (Santana, March 2013). In the coast-near river valley larvae were quite common especially on Galinsoga. [N]

Host plants:
The caterpillar lives polyphagous on mostly herbaceous plants. I found caterpillars in La Palma on a ruderal site on Echium, Foeniculum and Solanaceae. In La Gomera, the larvae were common in February 2013 on Bidens, Geranium and Bituminaria bituminosa and on Madeira (March 2013) on Galinsoga.

Habitat:
Thysanoplusia orichalcea inhabits especially farmland, gardens, ravines (barrancos), coastal areas, herb edges and residential areas in warm regions.

Life cycle:
To the south, Thysanoplusia orichalcea has a continuous succession of generations. I found caterpillars for example in the Canaries and Madeira in winter and spring. In Central Europe they immigrate very rarely and only in low density. The mature caterpillars hide during the day often at the base of the larval food plant and therefore are found less frequently than those of the Chrysodeixis chalcites. But especially younger instars feed and rest quite openly on the plants.

Remarks:
Thysanoplusia orichalcea occurs throughout Africa, in the southern part of Asia and Australia. In addition, it is found in the Atlantic islands (Canaries, Madeira, Azores) and in Southern Europe (Southern Spain, Southern Italy, Southern Greece) Further north, it occurs only occasionally as a rare migrant butterfly to about England and Germany.



Thysanoplusia circumscripta 
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