Pyrrhia umbra (Hufnagel, 1766)


Pyrrhia umbra: Adult (e.l. S-Germany, Upper Rhine Valley 2012/2013) [S] Pyrrhia umbra: Adult (e.l. Upper Rhine Valley 2012/2013) [S] Pyrrhia umbra: Adult (e.l. eastern Swabian Alb) [S] Pyrrhia umbra: Adult (Jagsttal, June 2011) [M] Pyrrhia umbra: Adult (Jagsttal, June 2011) [M] Pyrrhia umbra: Adult (e.l. eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany) [S] Pyrrhia umbra: Eggs on Geranium pratense (eastern Swabian Alb 2012) [M] Pyrrhia umbra: Young larva (eastern Swabian Alb 2012) [M] Pyrrhia umbra: Half-grown larva (eastern Swabian Alb, July 2012) [M] Pyrrhia umbra: Larva in penultimate instar (Upper Rhine Valley, September 2012) [S] Pyrrhia umbra: Larva after the last moult (eastern Swabian Alb 2012) [S] Pyrrhia umbra: Larva (e.l. Upper Rhine 2012) [S] Pyrrhia umbra: Larva (e.l. Upper Rhine 2012) [S] Pyrrhia umbra: Larva (green form, Swabian Alb, Southern Germany) [M] Pyrrhia umbra: Larva (dark form, Swabian Alb, Southern Germany) [M] Pyrrhia umbra: Pupa [S] Pyrrhia umbra: Larval habitat in an extensive meadow with Geranium pratense (northern Württemberg, Germany, July 2011) [N] Pyrrhia umbra: Larval habitat in a limestone grassland qith Ononis spinosa on the eastern Swabian Alb in August 2009. [N]

Host plants:
The larvae are polyphagous on herbs like Geranium and Fabaceae. I found caterpillars quite often on grasslands of the Swabian Alb on Ononis reptans and O. spinosa, but also Onobrychis.

Habitat:
Pyrrhia umbra inhabits nutrient-poor grasslands, forest edges, extensive meadows with Geranium and occasionally also fens.

Life cycle:
Pyrrhia umbra occurs in most often a single generation especially in June and July. In the warmer lowlands and in warm years there is an often only partial second generation in August/September. I observed the caterpillars mostly in July and August (Swabian Alb).

Endangerment: regionally endangered or decreasing

Endangerment factors:
Pyrrhia umbra is in decline due to the loss of nutrient-poor grasslands and other extensive areas, but is not yet seriously threatened.

Remarks:
Pyrrhia umbra occurs in most of Europe (excluding polar regions) and temperate Asia to Japan.


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