Erebia manto (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)


Erebia manto: Male [N] Erebia manto: Male upperside [N] Erebia manto: Male [N] Erebia manto: Male [M] Erebia manto: Female (Hinterstein, Allgäu Alps, 1700m above sea level, August 2012) [N] Erebia manto: Female (Hinterstein, 1700m above sea level, August 2012) [N] Erebia manto: Female (Hinterstein, 1700m above sea level, August 2012) [N] Erebia manto: Female (Hinterstein, Allgäu Alps,1700m above sea level, August 2012) [N] Erebia manto: Female (Hinterstein, Allgäu Alps, 1700m above sea level, August 2012) [N] Erebia manto: Female (Hinterstein, 1700m above sea level, August 2012) [N] Erebia manto: Female (Hinterstein, 1700m above sea level, August 2012) [N] Erebia manto: Female [N] Erebia manto: Female [N] Erebia manto: Mating (Großglockner, Austria, August 2009) [N] Erebia manto: Mating (Großglockner, August 2009) [N] Erebia manto: Oviposition at a Leontodon fruit stand (Hinterstein, August 2012) [N] Erebia manto: Ovum at a calyx leaf of Geranium sylvaticum (Kanisfluh, Bregenzer Wald, Austria 1800m above sea level, August 2009) [N] Erebia manto: Ovum (Kanisfluh, detail) [N] Erebia manto: Ovum [S] Erebia manto: L1-larva (e.o. SW-Bavarian Alps) [S] Erebia manto: L2-larva (e.o. SW-Bavarian Alps) [S] Erebia manto: Larva in penultimate instar (e.o. SW-Bavarian Alps) [S] Erebia manto: Larva in penultimate instar (ready for hibernation, e.o. SW-Bavarian Alps) [S] Erebia manto: Larva in last instar (e.o. SW-Bavarian Alps) [S] Erebia manto: Larva in last instar [S] Erebia manto: Larva lateral [S] Erebia manto: Pupa lateral (e.o. SW-Bavarian Alps) [S] Erebia manto: Pupa ventral [S] Erebia manto: Pupa dorsal [S] Erebia manto: Habitat in the Allgaeu Alps (SW Bavaria) [N] Erebia manto: Habitat at the Großglockner-Hochalpenstraße, Kärnten, Austria, 2100m above sea level, August 2009) [N] Erebia manto: Habitat in the Allgäu Alps near Hinterstein in August 2012. [N]

Host plants:
The larvae feed on grasses with medium to higher production as Anthoxanthum, Poa, Phleum etc.

Habitat:
Erebia manto colonizes mostly extensively grazed, but partial pretty nutrient-rich and often moderately moist to mesophilic meadows and pastures in the Alps from about 1100-1400m above sea level up to over 2200m. In the northern Alps Erebia manto is quite widespread.

Life cycle:
A single, rather late generation occurs from July (sometimes as early as late June) until the end of August or early September(peak End July and early August).

The eggs are attached to blades and leaves of grasses, but very often also in some decimeter height in flowers, fruits and dried plant parts. In August 2009, a female oviposited multiple on seed heads of Geranium sylvaticum (Kanisfluh, Vorarlberg (Austria), 1800m above sea level). In general, the caterpillars overwinter immediately after hatching (more rarely still in the egg shell) and are fully-grown in June or early July.

Endangerment factors:
Erebia manto is endangered in most areas only weakly (through intensification, reforestation and tourism).

Remarks:
The total distribution covers the mountains of Northern Spain (Cantabrian Mountains, Pyrenees), France (Pyrenees, Massif Central, Vosges) over the Alps (most common in the northern Alps) to the Carpathian Mountains and the northern Balkans.



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