Erebia zapateri Oberthür, 1875


Erebia zapateri: Male (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Male (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Female (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Female (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Female (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Female (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Male. The adults were also eager vistitors of the observers sweating skin (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013). [N] Erebia zapateri: Mal that has been catched by a crab spider (Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Female (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Female (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Female (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Female (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Female (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Female (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Female (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Female at Calluna (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Female (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Female (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Female (Sierra de Albarracin, Spain, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Streets crossing the habitat are also endangerment factors as sunbathing adults or those overflying the street are often killed by cars. As long as the habitat conditions are good, this should be a minor factor. Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013. [N] Erebia zapateri: Egg (Spain, Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013) [S] Erebia zapateri: Egg (Spain, Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013) [S] Erebia zapateri: Egg (Spain, Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013) [S] Erebia zapateri: Hatched larva (e.o. Sierra de Albarracin 2013) [S] Erebia zapateri: L1 (e.o. Sierra de Albarracin 2013) [S] Erebia zapateri: L1 (e.o. Sierra de Albarracin 2013) [S] Erebia zapateri: L2 larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: L2 larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Half-grown larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Half-grown larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Half-grown larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Half-grown larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Half-grown larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Half-grown larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Half-grown larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Half-grown larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Larva (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Pupa (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Pupa (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Pupa (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Pupa (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Pupa (e.o. Teruel 2013/2014) [S] Erebia zapateri: Habitat on the edge of a limestone pine woodland (Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Habitat on the edge of a limestone pine woodland (Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Habitat on the edge of a limestone pine woodland (Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Densely settled habitat on the edge of a limestone pine woodland (Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Densely settled habitat on the edge of a limestone pine woodland (Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Densely settled habitat in an acidic, open pine woodland (Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Densely settled habitat in an acidic, open pine woodland (Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013) [N] Erebia zapateri: Oviposition habitat with scattered Nardus stricta in an acidic pine forest. Cattle excrements show that this open forest habitat is grazed what is an important maintenance measure! Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013. [N] Erebia zapateri: Habitat on a small clearing in dense pine forest. Here you can observe much lower abundances than in open grazed woodlands. Sierra de Albarracin, late August 2013. [N]

Host plants:
The caterpillars feed on some grasses. I observed oviposition at Festuca ovina agg. in a limestone habitat and at Nardus stricta in a acidic area.

Habitat:
Erebia zapateri inhabits open pine forests with grassy undergrowth and especieally forest gap systems (forest pastures!) and nutrient-poor grasslands with trees and bushes at the pine forest edge. Erebia zapateri is quite abundant at appropriate sites. So I observed more than 50 adults in a grassland-like limestone pine forest edge and about 80 butterflies in an acidic, open pine forest with Cistus and Calluna (both in Sierra de Albarracin).

Life cycle:
The adults are on the wings in one generation between late July and early September. I found them still quite fresh in the last week of August 2013. The butterflies often warm up with open wings on the ground in the morning. Later on they visit eagerly nearly all available flowers such as Cirsium species, Eryngium campestre, Calluna vulgaris or Centaurea. Oviposition occurs near the ground in the grass tussocks and also at other structures like mosses. The caterpillars hibernate and should be mature in early July.

Endangerment factors:
Some populations of Erebia zapateri are endangered by changes in the forest edges and forest gap systems such as abandonment of extensive grazing, forestry measurements or tourism. Furthermore there is the potential thread due to climatic change and forest fires.

At the moment, there are locally still quite abundant populations.

Remarks:
Erebia zapateri is endemic to eastern Spain and occurs only locally in the vicinity of the Montes Universales/Sierra de Albarracin where it mostly settles in pine forests between 1100 and 1700m asl. The butterfly is close to Erebia neoridas.



Erebia aethiops | Erebia alberganus | Erebia calcaria | Erebia cassioides | Erebia claudina | Erebia epiphron | Erebia epistygne | Erebia eriphyle | Erebia euryale | Erebia flavofasciata | Erebia gorge | Erebia lefebvrei | Erebia ligea | Erebia manto | Erebia medusa | Erebia melampus | Erebia melas | Erebia meolans | Erebia mnestra | Erebia montana | Erebia neoridas | Erebia nivalis | Erebia oeme | Erebia orientalis | Erebia ottomana | Erebia palarica | Erebia pandrose | Erebia pharte | Erebia pluto | Erebia pronoe | Erebia rhodopensis | Erebia rondoui | Erebia scipio | Erebia sthennyo | Erebia stirius | Erebia styx | Erebia sudetica | Erebia triaria | Erebia tyndarus