Erebia claudina (Borkhausen, 1789)


Erebia claudina: Male (Gurktaler Alps, July 2009) [N] Erebia claudina: Male (Gurktaler Alps) [N] Erebia claudina: Male (Gurktaler Alps) [N] Erebia claudina: Male (Gurktaler Alps, July 2009) [N] Erebia claudina: Male (Gurktaler Alps) [N] Erebia claudina: Male (Gurktaler Alps) [N] Erebia claudina: Female [N] Erebia claudina: Female (Gurktaler Alps) [N] Erebia claudina: Female (Gurktaler Alps) [N] Erebia claudina: Female (e.o. Nockalmberge) [S] Erebia claudina: Female (Gurktaler Alps, July 2009) [N] Erebia claudina: Female [S] Erebia claudina: Female (Gurktaler Alps) [N] Erebia claudina: Female (e.o. Nockalmberge, Austrian Alps) [S] Erebia claudina: Female short after oviposition [N] Erebia claudina: Mating (Gurktaler Alps, July 2009) [N] Erebia claudina: Ovum [M] Erebia claudina: L1-larva [S] Erebia claudina: Young larva [S] Erebia claudina: Young larva lateral [S] Erebia claudina: Half-grown larva [S] Erebia claudina: Half-grown larva lateral [S] Erebia claudina: Larva in penultimate instar (e.o. Gurktaler Alps) [S] Erebia claudina: Larva in penultimate instar [S] Erebia claudina: Larva after the last moult  [S] Erebia claudina: Larva after the last moult  [S] Erebia claudina: Larva [S] Erebia claudina: Larva [S] Erebia claudina: Larva [S] Erebia claudina: Larva [S] Erebia claudina: Larva [S] Erebia claudina: Pupa [S] Erebia claudina: Pupa dorsal [S] Erebia claudina: Pupa ventral [S] Erebia claudina: Pupa: Kremaster dorsal [S] Erebia claudina: Kremaster ventral [S] Erebia claudina: Larval habitat (Gurktaler Alps) [N] Erebia claudina: Habitat (Gurktaler Alps, July 2009) [N] Erebia claudina: Habitat (Gurktaler Alps, July 2009) [N]

Host plants:
The caterpillar lives on grasses such as Deschampsia caespitosa, Festuca and Poa species. Probably also sedges (Carex) are used.

Habitat:
Erebia claudina inhabits pastures and meadows between 1400 and 2300m above sea level (maximum between 1700 and 2000m). The sites are most often characterized by partly and slightly higher growing vegetation. But they are nevertheless not too nutrient-rich and neither too dry nor wet. The habitats are often adjacent to clear spruce and larch forest or bushes or interspersed with them. These often quite small-scale reproduction habitats are partially scattered across low growing, rupicolous (open ground spots, rocks, etc.) areas, which are flown almost exclusively by males.

Life cycle:
The development is biennial. The caterpillar overwinters the first time in the first or second instar, the second time in penultimate. The adults fly especially in July (maximum in the first half of the month), but sometimes as early as June or even early August. While the males fly in search of newly emerged females in the habitat up and down and rest in between on stones, leaves or stalks, the females fly relatively little for nectar (Thymus, Asteraceae, etc.) and for oviposition. Hor this purpose they land in the vegetation and bend the abdomen as if they wanted to attach an egg. Because they lack the adhesive secretion, the egg falls within the vegetation or to the soil. The caterpillar lives quite concealed and is nocturnal in the later instars. Pupation takes place in a fairly dense, net-like cocoon on the ground.

Endangerment factors:
Erebia claudina is locally endangered by tourism infrastructure. In lower elevations also agricultural intensification or on the other hand also bush encroachment and reforestation after abandonment of the former extensive use (late mowing or extensive grazing) can displace Erebia claudina.

Remarks:
Erebia claudina is endemic to the Austrian Alps. Here it occurs in Carinthia and smaller adjacent parts of Salzburg and Styria (for example, southern Hohe (High) and Niedere (Low) Tauern, Weisspriach Valley, Gurktaler Alps, Saualpe etc.).

Hints on determination:
Erebia claudina is easy to determine due to its mostly visible white spots.



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