Hipparchia semele (Linnaeus, 1758)


Hipparchia semele: Male (e.l. Provence) [S] Hipparchia semele: Lower side (e.l. Provence) [S] Hipparchia semele: Adult (e.l. Italy, Abruzzes, Rieti, larva in May 2013) [S] Hipparchia semele: Adult (e.l. Italy, Abruzzes, Rieti, larva in May 2013) [S] Hipparchia semele: Male lower side [N] Hipparchia semele: Female, searching the shadow of a thistle in great heat (eastern Swabian Alb) [N] Hipparchia semele: Oviposition (arrow, eastern Swabian Alb) [N] Hipparchia semele: Oviposition in a rocky grassland on the eastern Swabian Alb [N] Hipparchia semele: Ovum [S] Hipparchia semele: Ovum [S] Hipparchia semele: L1 larva [S] Hipparchia semele: Young larva [S] Hipparchia semele: Half-grown larva [S] Hipparchia semele: Larva after the last moult (Provence, France) [M] Hipparchia semele: Larva (Provence, France) [S] Hipparchia semele: Fully-grown larva (Valais, Switzerland) [S] Hipparchia semele: Larva (Italy, Abruzzes, Rieti, May 2013) [M] Hipparchia semele: Larva (Italy, Abruzzes, Rieti, May 2013) [M] Hipparchia semele: Larva (Italy, Abruzzes, Rieti, May 2013) [M] Hipparchia semele: Pupa [S] Hipparchia semele: Pupa some days prior to emergence [S] Hipparchia semele: Habitat in the Valais [N] Hipparchia semele: Larval habitat (Abruzzes, Rieti, May 2013) [N]

Host plants:
The caterpillars feed on grasses such as Festuca ovina agg.

Habitat:
Hipparchia semele colonizes rocky grasslands with more intensive sheep grazing, coastal dunes, sandy grasslands, clear sand pine forests, steppe slopes and similar locations.

Life cycle:
Hibernation takes place as L2 and the caterpillar is fully-grown in early June. The adults fly from late June to September. The eggs are laid close to the ground in gappy habitats (e.g. embankments, rocks) and are attached to straws or moss.

Endangerment: endangered

Endangerment factors:
Hipparchia semele is declining very much. In the Swabian Alb (Germany), it was pushed back to the eastern part due to reduction of grazing, afforestation and decreasing eutrophication and becomes more and more rare also there. Hipparchia semele does not tolerate when the vegetation closes and no more gappy spots are left.

Remarks:
The distribution extends across most of Europe. Further east, the situation is uncertain because of difficulties in determination.



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