Pontia chloridice (Hübner, [1813])


Pontia chloridice: Larva in the antepenultimate instar (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Larva in the antepenultimate instar (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Larva in the antepenultimate instar (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Larva in the antepenultimate instar (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Larva in the antepenultimate instar (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Larva in the penultimate instar (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Larva in the penultimate instar (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Larva in the penultimate instar (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Larva in the penultimate instar (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Larva in the penultimate instar (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [M] Pontia chloridice: Larva in the penultimate instar (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [M] Pontia chloridice: Larva in the penultimate instar (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [M] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Larva (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Pupa (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Pupa (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Pupa (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Pupa (e.l. rearing, Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [S] Pontia chloridice: Cleome ornithopodioides (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Cleome ornithopodioides (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Cleome ornithopodioides (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Cleome ornithopodioides (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Cleome ornithopodioides with larva (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Cleome ornithopodioides (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Larval habitat in a gravelly river bed with periodical flow conditions (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N] Pontia chloridice: Larval habitat in a gravelly river bed with periodical flow conditions (Cyprus, Troodos mountains, 700m, early November 2016) [N]

Host plants:
The larvae feed in the first place on Cleome species (Cleomaceae), especially Cleome ornithopodioides, but also Cleome iberica. Additionally, there are records from Brassiceae (e.g. Descurainia sophia, Sisymbrium, Lepidium, Arabis) from Asia. Brassicaceae and Cleomaceae are closely related sister families.

Habitat:
Pontia chloridice inhabits sites with Cleome species. these plants are restricted to gravelly ground with scarce vegetation, more rarely also rocky areas. These gravel patches stay only open if they are regularly mechanically disturbed . Thus the most important types of habitat are periodical or permanent rivers and streamlets with gravelly bed where floodwaters often shift the ground. Especially in Asia also steep eroding and partly rocky slopes are settled, too. Secondary habitats may be new gravel sides of roads or other early succession stages.

Life cycle:
The butterflies occur in one to four generations, according to region. While there is usual only one generation in the higher altitudes of the Asian mountains, butterflies occur between March and November in e.g. Cyprus. But there is often a break in summer drought which is spent as pupa as it is the case in winter. The aposematic larvae are quite conspicuous to an experienced eye.

Remarks:
In Europe Pontia chloridice is found only locally in the Southeast (Macedonia, Bulgaria, NE-Greece, S-Russia). The main distribution of the butterfly is Asia from Turkey to China, N-India and Mongolia. Pontia chloridice also occurs in W-Cyprus. A closely related taxon occurs in N-America (own species?).



Pontia callidice | Pontia daplidice | Pontia edusa