Pyrgus cinarae (Rambur, 1839)


Pyrgus cinarae: Male [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Adult late July 2009 in the Askio mountains (already heavy worn) [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Adult (Northern Greece, NE Kastoria, 1600m above sea level, late July 2010) [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Male [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Female (e.o. N-Greece 2007/2008) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Female (Northern Greece) [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Female (Northern Greece) [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Lower side [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Portrait [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Oviposition (Northern Greece) [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Oviposition [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Ovum, after some days reddish [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Ovum [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Ovae, the larva has already developed [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Ovum, attached at the most typical place (lower side of the calyx near of the stem, Askio mountains, 2009) [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Ovae at underneath the calyx, Askio mountains, N-Greece, July 2010 [M] Pyrgus cinarae: Hatching larva [S] Pyrgus cinarae: L1-larva [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Larva at the end of the first instar (e.o. N-Greece, Florina) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Larva at the beginning of the second stages (e.o. N-Greece, egg records in July 2007) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Larva in the second instar (e.o. N-Greece 2007/2008) Pyrgus cinarae: Larva at the beginning of the third instar (e.o. N-Greece 2007/2008) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Larva in the third instar (e.o. N-Greece 2007/2008) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Larva in the fourth instar (e.o. N-Greece 2007/2008) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Larva in the fourth instar (e.o. N-Greece 2007/2008) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Larva in penultimate instar (Askio mountains, late May 2010) [M] Pyrgus cinarae: Larval shelter in the field in early May 2008 (Florina) [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Larva in last instar (L5) (e.o. N-Greece 2007/2008) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Mature larva (N-Greece, Mount Vitsi N Kastoria, 1700m asl, late June 2013) [M] Pyrgus cinarae: Shelter of a mature larva (N-Greece, Vitsi, 1700m asl, late June 2013) [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Larva in last instar (e.o. N-Greece 2007/2008) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Larva lateral (e.o. N-Greece 2007/2008) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Larva lateral (e.o. N-Greece 2007/2008) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Expulsor (to shoot away the excrements ) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Pupa dorsal (e.o. N-Greece 2007/2008) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Pupa lateral (e.o. N-Greece 2007/2008) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Pupal shelter (e.o. N-Greece 2007/2008) [S] Pyrgus cinarae: Habitat in Northern Greece [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Habitat (Greece, Florina, lakes of Prespa, May 2008 [N] Pyrgus cinarae: Habitat in the Greek Askio mountains (late July 2009) [N]

Host plants:
In Greece, the larvae feed on Potentilla recta and rarely Potentilla hirta (the latter observed in the Askio mountains in 2009). Ovipositiontakes usually place increased on already dried fruit shoots (stem leaves, stems, most often calyx bottom near stem insertion).

In Spain (ssp. chlorinda), oviposition takes place in the same way to Potentilla recta and Filipendula vulgaris (Juan Hernandez-Roldan).

Habitat:
Pyrgus cinarae colonizes vast steppe slopes in the white oak zone with single trees, often along with Pyrgus sidae, P. serratulae and Spialia phlomidis.

Life cycle:
Pyrgus cinarae flies in Greece from the end of June to early August. I found a well-preserved female in mid-July 2007 in the area of the Prespa Lakes in Northern Greece in about 1000m asl. The adults fed nectar around 9:30 am local time on Scabiosa ochroleuca and Centaurea species. Afterwards the eggs were attached increased (heat protection) onto dry fruiting shoots of the host plant. The caterpillars hibernate in the egg and hatch usually in March. The initially slow development lasts over 4 larval moults until late May or early June. The caterpillars live in shelters also increased initially on ground leaves with long petiols, but later preferred on stem leaves of flowering shoots. This is also where the chrysalis shelter is constructed. The caterpillar is coloured very bright in last instar. The development and morphology characterize Pyrgus cinarae as belonging to the Pyrgus carlinae complex. In late July 2009, I observed numerous eggs and last flown adults in the Askio Mountains.

Endangerment factors:
In general, there a significant threat of overgrazing, fire (negative at least in the short term, because of the local populations, but in the long term possibly more beneficial?), overbuilding, creation of large quarries and rubbish deposits. Pyrgus cinarae should particularly suffer from heavy overgrazing (oviposition increased on stems and fruits), while extensive maintenance is beneficial. Pyrgus cinarae does not tolerate mowing at all. Pyrgus cinarae requires very large or closely connected habitats!

Remarks:
Pyrgus cinarae is very local in Spain (apparently at a later flight time, especially in late July and August). The main distribution extends from Albania across Northern Greece and southern Bulgaria to southern Russia and Turkey. But distribution is only local even in Greece.



Pyrgus accretus | Pyrgus alveus | Pyrgus andromedae | Pyrgus armoricanus | Pyrgus bellieri | Pyrgus cacaliae | Pyrgus carlinae | Pyrgus carthami | Pyrgus cirsii | Pyrgus malvae | Pyrgus malvoides | Pyrgus onopordi | Pyrgus serratulae | Pyrgus sidae | Pyrgus warrenensis